Eritrea - Debub- Women sitting under the shade of a dead tree. As a result of 30 years of war for independence against Ethiopia (from 1961 to 1991) and another 3 years from 1997 to 2000, there are 50,000 Eritreans currently living in internally displaced (IDP) camps throughout the country. These IDPs have fled three times in the last 10 years, each time because of renewed military conflict. They lived in relatives' homes when lucky enough, but mostly, the fled to the mountains, where they attempted to do what Eritreans do best, survive. Currently there is no Ethiopian occupation in Eritrea, but landmines prevent the IDPs from finally going home. .It is estimated that every Eritrean family lost two or three members to the war which makes the reality of the current emergency situation even more painful for Eritreans worldwide. Currently, the male population has been decreased dramatically, affecting the most fundamental socio-economic systems in the country. Among the refugee population, an overwhelming majority of families are female-headed, severely affecting agricultural production. For, IDPs in particular, 80% of households are female-headed..The unresolved border dispute with Ethiopia remains the most important drawback to Eritrea’s socio-economic development, as national resources (human and material) continue to be prioritized for national defense. Eritrea is vulnerable to recurrent droughts and variable weather conditions with potentially negative effects on the 80 percent of the population that depend on agriculture and pastoralism as main sources of livelihood. The situation has been exacerbated by the unresolved border dispute, resulting in economic stagnation, lack of food security and increased susceptibility of the population to various ailments including communicable diseases and malnutrition..